The USSR was created by atheistic Jews, but Stalin overthrew them

by Peter Myers Date: 14 Aug 2007; updated March 10, 2018.

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Robert Wilton, St Petersburg correspondent for the London Times, documented the role of atheistic Jews in creating Bolshevism.

Chapter 16 of The Last Days of the Romanovs, naming the Jews running all the revolutionary parties, was omitted from the British & U.S. editions. Here a translation from the French Edition is published for the first time: wilton.html .

Stalin's purges reduced the dominance of the Jewish intelligensia which had rallied to the Bolsheviks during the civil war, and manned the bureaucracy for the first 20 years. These atheistic Jews had replaced the Germans, who provided similar professional and administrative services in Czarist Russia.

From the mid 1930s, Stalin reversed the earlier 'multicultural' policy favouring minorities, and initiated a policy of Russification. The Baruch Plan of 1946 proposed World Government via joint management of atomic energy and nuclear weapons, with the US retaining a veto. Stalin noted that Jews were at the top of nuclear matters in both the USA and the USSR, and determined to lessen that reliance.

After the creation of Israel, Jews were the only nationality in the USSR with a homeland outside its borders; questions of Dual Loyalty arose. When Golda Meir visited Moscow in 1948 as Israeli ambassador, Jews rallied at Moscow Synagogue with great enthusiasm, and the regime became alarmed. That led to further Russification of politically strategic posts; but Jews proliferated in the other professions until most of them left. There was no discrimination against Jews, except insofar as security issues were involved.

Convergence was a Zionist/Trotskyist idea which influenced Gorbachev, and which destroyed the Soviet Union. The aim was to seize control of the USSR from the Stalinists, while securing the West for "Marxist" values as enacted in the early Bolshevik period: Gay Rights, Feminism, the abolition of Marriage, cultural revolution, minorities against the majority: convergence.html.

On 14 Aug 2007, Israel Shamir put out a Shamireaders bulletin denying that the Soviet Union had been created by Jews. He allied with Patrick S. McNally against my position, just as he has allied with Eric Walberg more recently.

I replied with an email reproduced below (updated), and asked Shamir to publish it. He did, prefacing it with a refutation of sorts, one that bypassed most of the evidence I put. But he did publish it.

I sent this debate out to my email list, but never put it on my website. On Shamir's website, it is at

The links there are dead, for two reasons: (a) space characters have been inserted (b) my website has moved from Cyberone to Mailstar. The article, with corrected links, and slightly updated, is below.

The USSR was created by atheistic Jews, but Stalin overthrew them

By Peter Myers

Written 14 Aug 2007; updated January 11, 2014

In the Soviet Union, the Party (CPSU) controlled the Government (Council of People's Commissars); and the highest level of the Party was the Politburo. Within the Politburo, Jews predominated in the early years of the Soviet Union: this single fact shows that Jews created the Soviet Union.

Only after Stalin's rise to power did this situation change.

The membership of the Politburo on 22 March 1921 after the 10th Party Congress was: Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Stalin, and Kamenev.

These details are from Leonard Schapiro's book The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1960, Eyre & Spottiswoode, London ), p. 606. Quotes from this book are provided below.

Schapiro himself was Jewish, and, although providing these names, did not draw attention to their Jewishness.

Three of the five members of the Politburo (Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Kamenev) were Jewish by birth. Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry, as Volkogonov showed (Lenin: Life and Legacy, p. 9 <lenin-trotsky.html>). Stalin was the only non-Jew.

When Lenin died, the USSR was run by a triumvirate - Kamenev, Zinoviev & Stalin. Of these, Stalin was the only non-Jew. This is the other critical fact which shows Jewish dominance.

Bertrand Russell attested the Jewish role in creating Bolshevism, in a letter he wrote in 1920 just after visiting the USSR .

In the paperback The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (George Allen & Unwin, London 1975), it's on pp. 354-5. In the hardback, it's on Volume 2, p. 172:

{p. 354) To Ottoline Morell

Hotel Continental Stockholm 25th June 1920

Dearest O

... the time in Russia was infinitely painful to me, in spite of being one of the most interesting things I have ever done. Bolshevism is a close tyrannical bureaucracy, with a spy system more elaborate and terrible than the Tsar's, and an aristocracy as insolent and unfeeling, composed of Americanised Jews. No vestige of liberty remains, in thought or speech or action. ...

{endquote} russell.html

Stuart Kahan, Jewish himself and a nephew of Lazar Kaganovich, wrote in his book The Wolf of the Kremlin, a biography of his uncle Lazar:

{p. 81} After all, wasn't the revolution prepared and fashioned by Jews? Both of Karl Marx's grandfathers were rabbis, and Lenin's grandfather was also Jewish. And wasn't Yakov Sverdlov, the first chief of state, a Jew, as was Trotsky himself? But most people believed the Jews could be dealt with, as they always had been dealt with before.

That Trotsky, unquestionably the most outstanding man among the Bolsheviks, was a Jew did not seem an insuperable obstacle in a party in which the percentage of Jews, 52 percent, was rather high compared to the percentage of Jews (1.8 per cent) in the total population.

Lazar would have to keep a close eye on this. Would the people accept the revolution orchestrated by the Jews, or would they accept only one aspect and discard the other?

{endquote} kaganovich.html

Not that ALL Communists were Jews. But Communism was a Jewish idea, and the leaders in the early years of the USSR were mainly Jewish; the non-Jews were initially less important.

The same applied in the creation of Christianity. Its early leaders were Jewish; it was divided into a "Jewish" faction, led by James, and a "Hellenistic" faction, led by Paul. In the Stalin-Trotsky split, the Trotskyists were the "Jewish" faction.

Stalin's opportunity to take over arose because (1) Lenin died (2) Kamenev and Zinoviev feared Trotsky, even though all three were Jewish, and allied with Stalin (the junior member of the three) against him.

Kamenev and Zinoviev later joined Trotsky's "Opposition" grouping. This marked the coalescence of the anti-Stalin Communists around Trotsky as leader. I use the word "Trotskyist" in this generic sense, not merely of those who are official members of Trotskyist sects.

Many Jewish communists initially stayed with the Stalin camp, because it was running the USSR, and before World War II Jews had many leading positions, e.g. as ambassadors and in the Cheka.

But over the years, more and more swung over to the anti-Stalin camp. Events which led to this included:

¥ Stalin's Purges of mid 1930s were aimed at weeding out closet Trotskyists (including from the Army; Trotsky had been War Minister, and appointed its senior commanders). The numbers of victims multiplied as suspects implicated others to save themselves.

¥ Stalin's alliance with Hitler (it was the last straw for Arthur Koestler)

¥ The USSR's rehabilitation of Russian tradition during World War II, to enlist patriotic feelings

¥ The Jewish lobby overplayed its hand towards the end of World War II, promoting a plan for a Jewish republic in the Crimea. It would be part of the USSR , but have strong ties to American Jews and thus be somewhat independent. Stalin later turned against its sponsors

¥ The creation of Israel in 1946 provided Jews with a rival centre of loyalty

¥ The Doctors Plot of 1953 raised Jewish subversion as an issue (Stalin died within 2 months of the Doctors' Plot being announced - he was murdered. The Doctors Plot was announced by Tass on January 13, 1953. On February 11, 1953: the USSR severed diplomatic relations with Israel. On March 5, 1953, Stalin was declared dead. The imprisoned Doctors were freed by Beria, on taking power: death-of-stalin.html).

¥ Jews overwhelmingly sided with Israel in the 1967 and 1973 Middle-East wars; but the Soviet Union was allied to the Arabs

¥ Subsequently, Jewish ties to Israel and the US made them appear untrustworthy; as a result, they were kept out of sensitive positions, and reacted by emigrating from the USSR .

Trotsky, in his article Thermidor and Anti-Semitism, noted that Stalin was depicting the Opposition as a Jewish camp:

Written February 22, 1937
From The New International, May 1941
Transcribed for the Trotsky Internet Archive by Matt Siegfried in 1999

Between 1923 and 1926, when Stalin, with Zinoviev and Kamenev, was still a member of the "Troika," the play on the strings of anti-Semitism bore a very cautious and masked character. Especially schooled orators (Stalin already then led an underhanded struggle against his associates) said that the followers of Trotsky are petty bourgeois from "small towns" without defining their race. Actually that was untrue. The percentage of Jewish intellectuals in the Opposition was in no case any greater than that in the party and in the bureaucracy. It is sufficient to name the leaders of the Opposition for the years 1923-25. I. N. Smirnov, Serebryakov, Rakovsky, Piatakov, Preobrazhensky, Krestinsky, Muralov, Beloborodov, Mrachkovsky, V. Yakovlev, Sapronov, V. M. Smirnov, Ishtchenko - fully indigenous Russians. Radek at the time was only half-sympathetic. But, as in the trials of the grafters and other scoundrels, so at the time of the expulsions of the Opposition from the party, the bureaucracy purposely emphasized the names of Jewish members of casual and secondary importance. This was quite openly discussed in the party, and, back in 1925, the Opposition saw in this situation the unmistakable symptom of the decay of the ruling clique.

After Zinoviev and Kamenev joined the Opposition the situation changed radically for the worse. At this point there opened wide a perfect chance to say to the workers that at the head of the Opposition stand three "dissatisfied Jewish intellectuals."

Robert Wilton, correspondent of the Times of London at St Petersburg , documents that the October Revolution of 1917 was a Jewish Revolution, led by "Pseudo Jews", i.e. Jews who had renounced religion, many of whom had come from Western Europe with Lenin, or from America with Trotsky:

The Last Days of the Romanovs by Robert Wilton, London, Thornton Butterworth Limited, 1920.

{p. 26} Nonentities, figureheads of the Sovnarkom, do not interest us. We are concerned with great, if maleficient, personages in

{p. 27} the Red world. Most of them are still unknown outside the ranks of professional revolutionaries. A goodly proportion of the hundred Jews who came out of Germany with Lenin, and the hundreds who came from Chicago , deserve to be included in this gallery, for they undoubtedly held Russia under their sway. To enumerate and describe them would require a small volume. I need sketch only those who act prominently in the drama of Ekaterinburg. The most important were: Sverdlov, Safarov, Voikov, and Goloshcheckin, and the murderer-in- chief, Yurovsky. Others will be introduced later on.

{p. 125} When the Jewish murderers and their accomplices, the German-Magyar 'Letts,' had taken wing before the advance of the Whites, these prisoners were sent to Perm for future disposal, while they themselves had hurried westward, having helped to accomplish the hellish design of the Jew fiend, Yankel Sverdlov - to exterminate 'all the Romanovs.' Others had already preceded them to Perm , and the design had been fully accomplished there. The murder of the Romanovs at Perm took place exactly twenty-four hours after the murder of the family at Ekaterinburg.

{p. 146} But why all these precautions? If the people are so anxious to try and punish their late ruler, why resort to all manner of subterfuges, both in committing the 'execution' and in acquainting the people with the death of their 'oppressor'?

The answer is a simple one: Sverdlov and his associates were not sure of the people. The reason of that is equally simple: they were not Russians; they were Jews. They

{p. 147} were 'internationalists,' repudiating all nationality, yet disguised under Russian names. The Russians in their midst were dupes or dummies. Krassin might come to clear the ground, but Apfelbaum-Kamenev appeared for the serious work. What happened in London in 1920 is comparable in a modest way with the Red mechanism in Russia itself.

Taken according to numbers of population, the Jews represented one in ten; among the komissars that rule Bolshevik Russia they are nine in ten - if anything, the proportion of Jews is still higher.

These men feared the Russian people, they feared the Romanovs because they were Russians, they feared Nicholas Romanov because he had been a Russian Tsar, and when he refused to be seduced from his loyalty to his people and to the Allies they resolved that he should die - he and all the Romanovs. This resolve was carried out when the advance of anti-Bolshevik forces gave a reasonable hope of sophisticating the crime and avoiding a just punishment. And so definite was Jew-ruled Moscow on the necessity of the ex-Tsar's death that a whole month before the murder the report persisted that Nicholas II was dead.

{p. 148} The Germans knew what they were doing when they sent Lenin's pack of Jews into Russia . They chose them as agents of destruction. Why? Because the Jews were not Russians and to them the destruction of Russia was all in the way of business, revolutionary or financial. The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed with the stamp of alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov (who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews Goloschekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yukovsky, is the act not of the Russian people, but of this hostile invader.

{endquote} wilton.html

Part of my argument concerns Jewish crypsis ... that is, operating under camouflage or anonymity.

An example of Jewish crypsis was the composition of Bill Clinton's cabinet.

Madeline Allbright (Secretary of State, i.e. Foreign Minister)
Robert Rubin (Treasurer)
Mickey Kantor (Secretary for Trade, in charge of GATT and WTO)
William Cohen (Defence)
Sandy Berger (National Security Adviser).

Clinton 's Cabinet was largely Jewish, yet this was never acknowledged.

The Israeli newspaper Maariv published an article called The Jews Who Run Clinton's Court, by Avinoam Bar-Yosef, on September 2, 1994:

The Spanish Inquisition was introduced to combat the Jewish technique of wielding power as back-seat drivers.

Another example of Jewish crypsis was the Baruch Plan for World Government.

This was put to Stalin in 1946, by the US Government. It was drafted by two American Jews, David Lilienthal and Bernard Baruch (a Wall St banker): baruch-plan.html

Its supporters were largely Jewish, anti-Stalinist communists like Robert Oppenheimer and Albert Einstein. These supporters put out a book called One World or None: one-world-or-none.html

The public was not told that this was a substantially Jewish proposal. Yet this proposal was of the highest importance, and the public deserving of full information about it.

David Ben-Gurion claimed that "uniting the world", which he advocated and predicted, was a particularly Jewish idea. He explained it in terms of Judaism's mission to unify the world. Note that, even though an atheist, Ben Gurion derived this vision from the Jewish Bible: bengur-bible.html

Ben-Gurion, writing in LOOK magazine, Jan. 16, 1962, predicted a World Government by 1987:

All armies will be abolished, and there will be no more wars. In Jerusalem, the United Nations (a truly United Nations) will build a shrine of the Prophets to serve the federated union of all continents; this will be the scene of the Supreme Court of Mankind, to settle all controversies among the federated continents, as prophesied by Isaiah.

{endquote} More at bengur62.jpg

Ben-Ami Shillony expounded likewise: japan.html

That is, it arose out of Jewish philosophy; out of the Jewish religion.

Ben-Ami Shillony's book The Jews and the Japanese is intended to explain Judaism to Japanese readers.

Professor Shillony calls himself 'a Jew, an Israeli' (p. 10). He writes,

'Judaism was the first religion to make world peace a central element in its eschatology' (p. 31; but Judaism borrowed it from Zoroastrianism).

'Yet quite often peace implies domination, and in many languages the word "pacify" also means "conquer". King Solomon could afford to be a king of peace because he ruled "over all the kings from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt' (p. 32).

This quote, from 1 Kings 4:21, may not be historically accurate, yet it is the basis of promises that Jews will rule those lands again - at Genesis 15:18; Exodus 23:30-31; Deut 11:24; Josh 1:4 - and is a major motivator of modern Zionism.

Harry Waton, a Jewish Communist, expounded on the connection between the two, in his 1939 book A Program FOR THE JEWS: An Answer TO ALL ANTI-SEMITES: A PROGRAM FOR HUMANITY.

Communism, Rabbi Waton says, is Judaism's project for the world. All other religions are other-worldly; only Judaism lives for this world, and specifically for a political program which unifies and equalises mankind.

{p. 52} The Jews differ from all other races and peoples because of Judaism; Judaism differs from all other religions because of Jehovah; and Jehovah differs from all other gods. All other gods dwell in heaven. For this reason, all other religions are concerned about heaven, and they promise all reward in heaven after death. For this reason, all other religions negate the earth and the material world and are indifferent to the well-being and progress of mankind on this earth. But Jehovah comes down from heaven to dwell on this earth and to embody himself in mankind. For this reason, Judaism concerns itself only about this earth and promises all reward right here on this earth. The Kingdom of God is to be realized right here on this earth. The immortality which men are to enjoy, they will enjoy right here on this earth.

{p. 99} Since the Jews are the highest and most cultured people on earth, the Jews have a right to subordinate to themselves the rest of mankind and to be the

{p. 100} masters over the whole earth. ... The Jews will become the masters over the whole earth and they will subordinate to themselves all nations, not by material power, not by brute force, but by light, knowledge, understanding, humanity, peace, justice and progress. Judaism is communism, internationalism, the universal brotherhood of man, the emancipation of the working class and the human society. It is with these spiritual weapons that the Jews will conquer the world and the human race. The races and the nations will cheerfully submit to the spiritual power of Judaism, and all will become Jews.

{p. 102} The Aryans will enlarge and beautify the earth; but they will settle to enjoy the world which they created only in the tents of the Jews. These tents are communism, internationalism, the universal brotherhood of man, the emancipation of the working class and the human society - a society of free and morally autonomous rational human beings. ...

{p. 103} A reference to the Bible will show that the Jews were always referred to as a people, and not as a nation. And an understanding of the history and destiny of the Jews will reveal the fact that the Jews were not intended to be a nation. But what constitutes the Jews as a people? It is their identification with Jehovah and Judaism. Take away from the Jews Jehovah and Judaism, and they cease to be Jews.

{p. 113} But the Jews were chosen, not for their own sake, they were chosen to become the means through whom Jehovah will redeem all mankind. Salvation is of the Jews, but the Jews themselves will realize this salvation only through the salvation of the whole human race. It is therefore the historic function of the Jews to bring salvation to mankind.

{p. 133} And, while most Jews believe in the general idea of immortality, the Jews that have a deeper understanding of Judaism know that the only immortality there is for the Jew is the immortality in the Jewish people. Each Jew continues to live in the Jewish people, and he will continue to live so long as the Jewish people will live.

{p. 138} The communists are against religion, and they seek to destroy religion; yet, when we look deeper into the nature of communism, we see that it is essentially nothing else than a religion. That the communists seek to destroy all existing religions is not remarkable; all new religions had first to destroy the existing religions, to clear the terrain for its own existence. This was the case of Judaism, Christianity, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, and all other religions.

{p. 139} But men are not free to choose their ideas; rather ideas choose men. Hence, it is not men that struggle for and against ideas, but the ideas struggle against one another. Since religion is the most essential idea, it follows that the struggles of religious ideas against one another are the most vital struggles in human existence.

{p. 163} The proletariat is the lowest and most backward class in society. It is therefore the supreme duty of the Jews to identify themselves with the proletariat. All other classes will disappear, but the working class will endure forever, for all of mankind will become workers. For identifying themselves with the working class the Jews will incur the displeasure and hatred of the ruling classes, but the Jews must not fear the ruling classes: their rule will be only for a while. Let the Hitlers and the anti-Semites look down with contempt upon the working class, but the Jews must look upon the working class as upon their own brothers and equals. Let the Hitlers and the parasites look down with contempt upon the colored and inferior races, but the Jews must identify themselves with these races and help them rise ...

{p. 171} ... Christianity was a regression from Judaism. ... a Christianity which was nothing else than paganism ...

{p. 172} ... Christianity is only a preparation for Judaism.

{p. 174} The time will come when all Christians will become mature, they will all embrace Judaism, and they will all justify themselves by deeds. Then the Christians will become Jews.

full text: watonpgm.doc OR watonpgm.pdf

Stalin's wresting of power from the Jewish Bolsheviks is attested by Solzhenitsyn in his book The First Circle, through the character Adam Roitman:

"Perhaps his memory deceived him, but hadn't he been right in thinking that during the Revolution, and for a long time afterwards, Jews were regarded as more reliable than Russians? In those days, the authorities always probed more deeply into the antecedents of a Russian, demanding to know who his parents were and what the source of his income was prior to 1917. No such checks had been made on Jews; they had all been on the side of the Revolution which delivered them from pogroms and the Pale of settlement. "But now this. ... surreptitiously, hiding behind minor figures, Joseph Stalin was taking it upon himself to be the new scourge of the Israelites" (The First Circle, Fontana paperback, p. 511; see also pp. 510, 515-6, 547-8, 559).

Here is an email which contains an English rendition of part of Alexander Solzhenitzyn' s new book 200 Years Together, on the role of Jews in communism

{start} Date: Sun, 27 Apr 2003 12:11:44 -0700 From: aelewis@provide. net

From: <lsn@overthrow. com> Subject: Excerpts From Solzhenitsyn' s New Book On The Jews : In English For The First Time ; Alexander Solzhenitsyn / LSN Staff Date: Wed, 23 Apr 2003 11:23:53 -0400

Excerpts From Solzhenitsyn' s new book Two Hundred Years Together, about Russians and Jews:

Chapter 15 -- THE BOLSHEVIKS

This is not a new theme: the Jewish role in Bolshevism. On it, much has already been written. Those who try to prove that the revolution was non- Russian indicate the Jewish names and pseudonyms in an attempt to remove from the Russian people the blame of the revolution of 1917. But Jews, who began by similarly denying the role of Jews in positions Bolshevik authority, have now been forced to admit participation, but claim that those Jews were not Jews in spirit, but renegades. ...

A small pile of Bolsheviks having now come to power and taken authority, their control was still brittle: Whom could they trust in the government? Whom could they call to aid? The seeds of the answer lay in the creation in January 1918 of a special people's commissariat from the members of the Jewish commissariat, whose reason was expressed in Lenin's thought: The Bolshevik service in the revolution was possible because of the role of the large Jewish intelligentsia in several Russia cities. These Jews engaged in general sabotage, which was directed against Russians after the October Revolution and which has been extremely effective. Jewish elements, though certainly not the entirety of the Jewish people, saved the Bolshevik Revolution through these acts of sabotage. Lenin took this into consideration, and emphasized it in the press ... and he recognized that to master the state apparatus he could succeed only because of this reserve of literate and more or less intelligent, sober and new clerks.

Thus the Bolsheviks, from the first days of their authority, called upon the Jews to assume the bureaucratic work of the Soviet apparatus -- and many, many Jews answered that call. They, in fact, responded immediately. The sharp need of the Bolsheviks for bureaucrats to exercise their authority met great enthusiasm among young Jews, pell-mell with the Slav and international brethren. And this was in no way compulsory for these Jews, who were non- party members, and who had been previously completely non-revolutionary and apolitical. This phenomenon was not ideological but a phenomenon of mass calculation by the Jews. And the Jews in the previously forbidden and cherished rural provinces and their capitals gushed out of their ghettos to join the Bolsheviks, seeing in them the most decisive defenders of the revolution and the most reliable internationalists, and these Jews flooded and abounded in the lower layers of the party structure. ...

Let us recall that how, before the revolution, revolutionaries and radical- liberals were willing to oppose the restraints placed upon the Jews not out of love for the Jews, but for political purposes. So in the first months and years after the October Revolution the Bolsheviks made a great effort to hunt down Jews for use in the state and party apparati, not out of affinity for the Jewish people, but for the abilities they combined with their alienation and hatred of the Russian population. In this manner they also approached the Latvians, the Hungarians and the Chinese.

Though the mass of the Jewish population initially viewed the Bolsheviks with alarm, thought not hostility, after finding that the revolution granted them complete freedom, and that it welcomed a bloom of Jewish activity in the public, political and cultural spheres, the Jewish population threw themselves into Bolshevism; and Bolshevik authority particularly attracted those whose character held a surplus of cruelty. ...

But despite their pain there is no doubt that these Jewish renegades for several years after the revolution dominated Bolshevism, headed the belligerent Red Army (Trotsky), the ALL-RUSSIAN CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTE (Sverdlov), ran both capitals (Zinoviev), the Komintern (Zinoviev), the Profintern / Red Trade Union International (Dridzo-Lozovskiy) and the Komsomol (Oscar Ryvkin, after it Lazarus Shatskin, the very same and in the chapter of the Communist international of young people).

In the first council of People's Commissars there was, true, only one Jew, but the influence of this one Jews, Trotsky, Lenin's second, exceeded that of all the rest. And from November 1917 through 1918 the real government was not the Council of Peoples' Commissars but the in the so-called Small Council of People's Commissars: Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Karelin, Prosh'yan. After October, of no less importance that the Council of People's Commissars, was the presidium of VTsIK, the ALL-RUSSIAN CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Among its six chairmen: Sverdlov, [unintelligible Jewish name], Volodarsky, and Glass.

M. Agursky correctly notes that in the country, where one was not accustomed to seeing Jews, the ascension of the Jews to power was particularly striking: The President of the country, a Jew? The War Minister, a Jew? There was something to this, so radical that the population of Russia could not adjust to it -- not only because of their Judaism, but because of what they as Jews stood for.

{end of Solzhenitsyn email} more at Solzhenitsyn-200YT.html. A .doc version of the book is at Solzhenitsyn-200YT.doc .

Benjamin Disraeli, writing in 1844, is referring below to the revolution of 1848, launched shortly after the appearance of The Communist Manifesto.

He says that this revolution, soon to break out, "is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews".

Coningsby. A 'novel' written in 1844. 5th edition, published by Peter Davies, London, 1927, with an Introduction by Philip Guedalla.

{p. 264} 'You never observe a great intellectual movement in Europe in which the Jews do not greatly participate. The first Jesuits were Jews; that mysterious Russian diplomacy which so alarms western Europe is organised and principally carried on by Jews; that mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany, and which will be, in fact, a second and greater Reformation, and of which so little is as yet known in England, is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews, who almost monopolise the professorial chairs of Germany. ..

{endquote} disraeli.html

J. L. Talmon was Professor of Modern History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the author of The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy.

He wrote in his book Israel among the Nations (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1970):

{p. 2} Then there are those Jews who are unable to ignore the intimate relation between Jews and revolution, but wish they had never heard of it.

{p. 28} In his famous interview with the Tsarist Minister Witte, Herzl was faced with the question why the Jews who constituted only 3 per cent of the population of Russia supplied 50 per cent of its revolutionaries. ...

But absolute figures do not tell the whole story. The qualitative aspects were more significant. ...

{endquote} talmon.html

The Jewish State, by Theodor Herzl

(Dover Publications, New York, 1988)

{p. 91} When we sink, we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of all revolutionary parties; and at the same time, when we rise, there rises also our terrible power of the purse.

{endquote} herzl.html

Yuri Slezkine attested the initial Jewish dominance in the USSR , but the Stalinist overthrow of it, and the Jewish response by emigration, in his book The Jewish Century (Princeton University Press, Princeton , 2004):

{p. 169} For those who wished to fight, there as but one army to join. The Red Army was the only force that stood earnestly and consistently against the Jewish pogroms and the only one led by a Jew. Trotsky was not just a general or even a prophet: he was the living embodiment of redemptive violence, the sword of revolutionary justice, and at the same time Lev Dadidovich Bronstein, whose first school had been Schufer's heder in Gromoklei, Kherson province. The other Bolshevik leaders standing closest to Lenin during the civil war were G. E. Zinoviev (Ovsei-Gersh Aronovich Radomyslsky) , L. B. Kamenew (Rosenfeld), and Ya. M. Sverdlov {all Jewish}. ...

{p. 175} At the Bolshevik Central Committee meeting of October 23, 1917, which voted to launch an armed insurrection, 5 out of the 12 members present were Jews. Three out of seven Politbureau members charged with leading the October uprising were Jews (Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Grigory Sokolnikov [Girsh Brilliant} ). ... The first Bolshevik bosses of Moscow and Petrograd were Kamenev and Zinoviev. Zinoviev was also

{p. 176} the chairman of the Communist International. The first Bolshevik commandants of the Winter Palace and the Moscow Kremlin were Grigorii Isakovich Chudllovsk, and Emelian Yaroslavsky (Minei Israelevich Gubelman). Yaroslavsky was also the chairman of the League of the Militant Godless. The heads of the Soviet delegation at the Brest-Litovsk negotiations were Adolf Ioffe and Trotsky. Trotsky was the face of the Red Army.

{p. 297} All Stalinist purges were about creeping penetration by invisible aliens and here was a race that was both ubiquitous and camouflaged; an ethnic group that was so good at becoming invisible that it had become visible as an elite (perhaps the Soviet elite). Here was a nationality that did not possess its own territory (or rather, possessed one but refused to live there), a nationality that did not have its own language (or rather, had one but refused to speak it), a nationality that consisted almost entirely of intelligentsia (or rather,

{p. 298} refused to engage in proletarian pursuits); a nationality that used pseudonyms instead of names ...

{endquote} slezkine.html

Below, Leonard Schapiro lists members of the Politburo, the inner group of the Central Committee, with authority to make policy. It was set up in 1919, and replaced by the Praesidium in 1952.

This list of names is a guide to who was running the USSR . Note the changes in the 1920s, as Stalin edged his opponents out, and in the 1950s, after the death of Stalin.

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Leonard Schapiro

1960 Eyre & Spottiswoode


{p. 606} APPENDIX III {CC = Central Committee (of CPSU); CCC = Central Control Commission (the disciplinary body within the Central Committee)}

Members and Candidate Members of the Politburo and Praesidium 1917-1958

1. Bureau for the political guidance of the insurrection. Elected at the C.C. meeting 10 (23).10.17 - V. I. Lenin, G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, L. D. Trotsky, I. V. Stalin, G. Ia. Sokol'nikov, A. S. Bubnov.

{Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky and Sokol'nikov were Jewish. Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry.}

2. Elected in March 1919 after the 8th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, N. N. Krestinskii; Candidates: Zinoviev, N. I. Bukharin.

{Kamenev, Trotsky and Sokol'nikov were Jewish; Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry.}

3. Elected 22 March 1921 after the 10th Congress - Members: Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Stalin, and Kamenev; Candidates: V. M. Molotov, M. I. Kalinin and Bukharin.

{3 of the 5 members of the Politburo were Jewish. Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry. Stalin was the only non-Jew.}

4. Elected 3 April 1922 after the 11th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, A. I. Rykov, M. M. Tomskii; Candidates: Bukharin, Molotov, V. V. Kuibyshev, Kalinin.

5. Elected 26 April 1923 after the 12th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Rykov, Tomskii; Candidates: Bukharin, Molotov, Kuibyshev .

6. Elected 2 June 1924 after the 13th Congress - {Lenin had died} Members: Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Rykov, Tomskii, Bukharin (Lenin died 24 January 1924); Candidates: Molotov, Kuibyshev , Kalinin , F. E. Dzerzhinskii.

7. Elected 1 January 1926 after the 14th Congress - Members: Bukharin, K. E. Voroshilov, Zinoviev, Kalinin, Molotov, Rykov, Stalin, Tomskii, Trotsky; Candidates: Ia. E. Rudzutak , Dzerzhinskii, G. I. Petrovskii, N. A. Uglanov, Kamenev.

{p. 607} 8. C.C. plenary session 14-23 July 1926 - Zinoviev expelled and replaced by Rudzutak

Elected Candidates: Petrovskii, Uglanov, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, A. A. Andreev, S. M. Kirov, A. I. Mikoyan, L. M. Kaganovich, Kamenev (Dzerzhinskii died 20 July 1926).

9. C.C. plenary session 23 October 1926 - Trotsky and Kamenev expelled.

10. C.C. plenary session 3 November 1926 - Ordzhonikidze replaced by V. Ia. Chubar' ( Ordzhonikidze elected chairman of the C.C.C.).

11. Elected 19 December 1927 after the 15th Congress - Members: Bukharin, Voroshilov, Kalinin , Kuibyshev , Molotov, Rykov, Rudzutak, Stalin, Tomskii; Candidates: Petrovskii, Uglanov, Andreev, Kirov, Mikoyan, Kaganovich, Chubar', S. V. Kossior.

12. C.C. plenary session 29 April 1929 - Uglanov replaced by K. Ia. Bauman.

13. C.C. plenary session 10-17 November 1929 - Bukharin expelled.

14. Elected 13 July 1930 after the 16th Congress - Members: Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Kalinin , Kirov , Kossior, Kuibyshev , Molotov, Rykov, Rudzutak, Stalin; Candidates: Mikoyan, Chubar', Petrovskii, Andreev, S. I. Syrtsov.

15. C.C. and C.C.C. decision 1 December 1930 - Syrtsov expelled from the C.C.

16. C.C. and C.C.C. joint plenary session 17-21 December 1930 - Rykov expelled; Andreev relieved; Ordzhonikidze elected member (Andreev elected Chairman of the C.C.C.).

17. C.C. plenary session 4 February 1932 - Rudzutak relieved; Andreev elected member (Rudzutak elected Chairman of the C.C.C.).

18. Elected 10 February 1934 after the 17th Congress - Members: Stalin, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov, Kalinin , Ordzhonikidze , Kuibyshev , Kirov , Andreev, Kossior; Candidates: Mikoyan, Chubar', Petrovskii, P. P. Postyshev, Rudzutak.

19. C.C. plenary session 1 February 1935 - Elected Members: Mikoyan, Chubar'; Candidates: A. A. Zhdanov, R. I. Eikhe (Kirov assassinated 1 December 1934, Kuibyshev died 25 January 1935).

{p. 608} 20. October 1937 - N. I. Ezhov elected candidate. Ordzhonikidze committed suicide 18 February 1937.

21. C.C. plenary session in January 1938 - Postyshev expelled and replaced by N. S. Khrushchev.

22. Purged during 1938: Kossior, Chubar', Rudzutak, Eikhe, Ezhov. Petrovskii removed early in 1939.

23. Elected 22 March 1939 after the 18th Congress - Members: Zhdanov , Khrushchev; Candidates: L. P. Beria, N. M. Shvernik.

24. C.C. plenary session 21 February 1941 after the 18th Conference - Elected Candidates: N. A. Voznesenskii, G. M. Malenkov, A. S. Shcherbakov.

25. C.C. plenary session in March 1946 - Elected Members: Beria, Malenkov; Candidates: N. A. Bulganin, A. N. Kosygin (Shcherbakov died 10 May 1945).

26. Voznesenskii became member 28 February 1947 (Kalinin died 3 June 1946).

27. In February 1948 - Elected Members: Bulganin, Kosygin.

28. Zhdanov died 31 August 1948; Voznesenskii arrested in March 1949.

29. Praesidium elected 16 October 1952 after the l9th Congress - Members: V. M. Andrianov, A. B. Aristov, Beria, Bulganin, Voroshilov, S. D. Ignat'ev, Kaganovich, D. S. Korotchenko, V. V. Kuznetsov, O. V. Kuusinen, Malenkov, V. A. Malyshev, L. G. Mel'nikov, Mikoyan, N. A. Mikhailov, Molotov, M. G. Pervukhin, P. K. Ponomarenko, M. Z. Saburov, Stalin, M.A. Suslov, Khrushchev, D. I. Chesnokov, Shvernik, M. F. Shkiriatov; Candidates: L. I. Brezhnev, A. Ia. Vyshinskii, A. G. Zverev, N. G. Ignatov, I. G. Kabanov, N. S. Patolichev, N. M. Pegov, A. M. Puzanov, I. F. Tevosian, P. F. Iudin.

30. Confirmed 6 March 1953 after Stalin's death - Members: Malenkov, Beria, Molotov, Voroshilov, Khrushchev, Bulganin, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Saburov, Pervukhin; Candidates: Shvernik, Ponomarenko, Mel'nikov, M. D. Bagirov.

31. C.C. plenary session in May or June 1953 - Mel'nikov replaced by A. I. Kirichenko.

32. C.C. plenary session in July 1953 - Beria expelled from the party.

{p. 609} 33. Bagirov arrested during 1953 (on July 7).

34. C.C. plenary session in July 1955 - Elected Members: Kirichenko, Suslov.

35. Elected 27 February 1956 after the 20th Congress - Members: Bulganin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Kirichenko, Malenkov, Mikoyan, Molotov, Pervukhin, Saburov, Suslov, Khrushchev; Candidates: G. E. Zhukov, Brezhnev, N. A. Mukhitdinov, D. T. Shepilov, E. A. Furtseva, Shvernik.

36. C.C. plenary session 13-14 February 1957 - Elected Candidate: F. R. Kozlov.

37. C.C. plenary session 22-27 June 1957 - Malenkov, Kaganovich, Molotov and Shepilov expelled from the C.C.

Elected Members: Aristov, N. I. Beliaev, Brezhnev, Bulganin, Voroshilov, Zhukov, Ignatov, Kirichenko, Kozlov, Kuusinen, Mikoyan, Suslov, Khrushchev, Shvernik; Candidates: Mukhitdinov, P. N. Pospelov, Korotchenko, Ia. E. Kalnberzin, A. P. Kirilenko, Kosygin, K. T. Mazurov, V. P. Mzhavanadze.

38. C.C. plenary session 3 November 1957 - Zhukov expelled from the C.C. Replaced by Mukhitdinov on 19 December 1957.

39. C.C. plenary session 17-18 June 1958 - Elected Candidates.: N. V. Podgornyi, D. S. Polianskii.

40. C.C. plenary session early September 1958 - Bulganin expelled from C.C.


Stalin single-handedly overthrew Jewish control of Communism, forcing Jewish Communists to choose among

(a) switching to the Trotskyist camp, as Zionviev and Kamenev came to do, as the New York Intellectuals of Partisan Review did (until they came out as Neocons), and as New Left Review and Dissent Magazine still do

(b) switching to the Frankfurt School's anti-authoritarian Marxism, and Antonio Gramsci's Culture War on Western Civilization, as pursued by the Green Left in recent decades

(c) switching to Anarchism, as Emma Goldman did after initially supporting the Bolsheviks. But whereas Bakunin attested the Jewish dominance in Marxism - and that the Jews around Marx had "one foot in the bank, the other in the socialist movement" <correctness.html#foot>, Emma Goldman and her follower Noam Chomsky have never acknowledged such

(d) accepting Stalin's leadership in the knowledge that many Jews were at the top - eg most Soviet Ambassadors were Jewish, prior to World War II, as Nahum Goldmann proudly noted. Similarly, Bill Clinton's Cabinet was mainly Jewish: Stalin was a Clinton who turned the tables

(e) abandoning Communism and switching to Zionism instead, as Arthur Koestler did for a while, and as Mick Hume, Melanie Phillips and other former Trotskyists did more recently, moving from the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) to the (anti-Green Left) Living Marxism Magazine (LM Magazine), from which they then came out as Neocons

(f) abandoning Jewish movements and revealing their workings, as Benjamin Freedman did, and as Israel Shamir, Jeffrey Blankfort, and Gilad Atzmon have done more recently (each in his own way).


Jews "formed the largest and most important group of victims of the Stalinist purges" - Benjamin Ginsberg: stalin-purges.html .

Write to me at contact.html.