Wikipedia writes Solzhenitsyn out from the History of Communism

Peter Myers

Date January 12, 2114; update March 1, 2019.

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UPDATE Feb 6, 2019: Solzhenitsyn's 200 Years Together - 2 volumes complete in English, full 796 page translation (pdf)

This version is called the "encrypted" version, even though it is not encrypted (presumably it once was). The Translator had to stay anonymous for legal reasons. Download it at Solzhenitsyn-200YT-Complete.pdf .

UPDATE February 10, 2019: A .doc version is at Solzhenitsyn-200YT-Complete.doc .

(1) Banned All Over Again
(2) Unofficial English Translation
(3) Wikipedia writes Solzhenitsyn out from the History of Communism
(4) Wikipedia webpage on 200YT is obsessed with accusations of Antisemitism, fails to ask why no English edition
(5) Solzhenitsyn family dismisses 'Jewish conspiracy', says no English edition of 200YT; online editions are illegal
(6) The word "Moslem" - in the German version but not the Russian or French versions

(1) Banned All Over Again

- by Peter Myers, January 12, 2114

In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Alexander Solzhenitsyn wrote that he had been "convinced I should never see a single line of mine in print in my lifetime".

The Gulag Archipelago, which sold 30 million copies in 35 languages, never was published in the Soviet Union. Despite KGB attempts to confiscate it, the manuscript was smuggled out and published in the West. Now, it is mandatory reading in Russian schools.

But Solzhenitsyn's last and greatest book - freely available in Russia - is facing the same censorship in the West that The Gulag Archipelago faced in the Soviet Union. That's because it deals with the Jews - specifically, their role in the Bolshevik Revolution.

The above Wikipedia webpage on Alexander Solzhenitsyn includes this statement:

"Solzhenitsyn also published a two-volume work on the history of Russian-Jewish relations (Two Hundred Years Together 2001, 2002). Never published in the USA, this book stirred controversy and caused Solzhenitsyn to be accused of anti-Semitism."

Solzhenitsyn's book on the Jews was published in Russian in 2001/2. Since then, German and French editions have been published, but no English-language edition.

The Guardian reviewed the Russian edition:

Solzhenitsyn breaks last taboo of the revolution
Nobel laureate under fire for new book on the role of Jews in Soviet-era repression

Nick Paton Walsh in Moscow
The Guardian, Saturday 25 January 2003 21.32 AEST

Amazon sells the Russian edition:

It has no Editorial Reviews, only Customer Reviews. Of them:

Chuckyarla wrote "It is both sad and a travesty that we cannot read this book in english. Who says that we have freedom of speech".

Edmund P. Leigh "Chief Aerospace Engineer" (Warner Robins, GA) wrote:

[...] The Gulag Archipalego is now required reading for all Russian high school students. Quite an accolade along with winning the Nobel Prize for literature in the 1970's. So why do we not have an english translation from Russia's great writer on this book ? [...] Later in the early 20th centuary it does appear that there was disproportionate amount of leadership that was jewish in the communist top echelons in the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. [...] It also appears that many of the commisars in the communist revolution were disproportionately jewish. Since the jews were only 4 % of the Russian population out of 180 M this was obvious to many during the Russian Civil War of 1917-1923 because the jews spoke Russian often with a yiddish accent and this gained noticed. Also in general terms jewish and russian facial and hair features (russians tend to be blond) and mannerism are different as you would expect from two different cultures. It appears the the "Reds" attracted the jews and the communist revolutionaries were able to trust the jews for key roles such as the execution of the Czar and his familiy. [...] Today in present day Russia there are only about 200,000 Jews remaining whereas in 1917 there were about 7 M. Hence we have the title of Solzhenitsyn's book. ...

Jan Wlochowski wrote "The discussion of the Jewish Question ( his own words) probably keeps it from being published in English-how sad."

John A. Bertenshaw wrote:

I haven't read the book but came here after reading that the English version had been inexplicably banned in the West and thought I'd come to Amazon to see if this were true. Indeed, it seems it is. Interesting that there are 4 reviews praising the book from this Nobel prize winning author - particularly in regards to the research and documentation involved - and 1 giving the absolute lowest score possible. That reviewer even suggesting the author had somehow lost his mind! My interest was piqued. I did a little digging and found that the 1 star reviewer gave a mighty 4 stars to a book about MOSSAD which she says she already knew quite a bit about. Any further comment would be superfluous.

Solzhenitsyn was never a Nazi or Nazi supporter. On the contrary, during World War II he was a Commander in the Soviet Army which conquered East Germany. A letter he wrote, criticising Stalin, was intercepted and opened by the Secret Police, and led to him being sentenced to eight years in the Gulag, after which he was sent to internal exile. During his imprisonment, exile, and treatment for cancer, Solzhenitsyn abandoned Marxism, returned to spiritual values, and repented of some of the things he had done in the Army.

Khrushchev freed Solzhenitsyn in 1956, after delivering his Secret Speech against Stalin; he also allowed the publication, in the USSR, of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. But after Brezhnev ousted Krushchev in 1964, repression returned. Solzhenitsyn was charged with Treason, and deported - saved by his high profile.

Gorbachev pardoned Sakharov - a fellow One Worlder like himself - but never pardoned Solzhenitsyn. Treason charges against Solzhenitsyn were only dropped in September 1991, after Gorbachev had fallen in August 1991: convergence.html. The New York Times reported:

Soviets Drop Solzhenitsyn Treason Charges
By ANDREW ROSENTHAL Published: September 18, 1991

The Gulag Archipelago was fiercely criticised in the Soviet press, even though the book was never published there. Similarly, if you study the Wikipedia webpage on Solzhenitsyn, you will note similar fierce attacks on him in the United States, even though his 200YT has never been published there.

Solzhenitsyn was no apologist for Capitalism. He deplored the destruction of the Russian economy after the fall of Communism, and urged the West to turn from decadence and materialism back to spiritual values.

He is a prophet for our times.

Reader, we are like the samizdat during Soviet times. Do your part: download the pdf file (below) and spread it around. Beat the censorship of this book.

(2) Unofficial English Translation - only on the Internet

Solzhenitsyn's 200 Years Together - 2 volumes complete in English, full 796 page translation (pdf)

This version is called the "encrypted" version, even though it is not encrypted (presumably it once was). The Translator had to stay anonymous for legal reasons. Download it at Solzhenitsyn-200YT-Complete.pdf .

UPDATE February 10, 2019: A .doc version is at Solzhenitsyn-200YT-Complete.doc .

(3) Wikipedia writes Solzhenitsyn out from the History of Communism

- by Peter Myers, February 16, 2019

During the Cold War, any discussion of Communism brought up Alexander Solzhenitsyn. He was the person who made the Gulag known to the world; he exposed the reality of Communism from first-hand experience. Millions of readers trusted his account of Communism more than any other.

Even Khrushchev honoured him, during the Thaw. He received the highest awards, and was treated as a prophet and mentor. But, since the publication of his book Two Hundred Years Together, he has become persona non grata.

This book, his last and major work, his testament to humanity, is his 2-volume history of the revolutionary period, covering the 200 years up to the fall of the Soviet Union. But it focuses on the relations between Jews and Russians, and the Jewish role in the Red Terror.

For that reason, no official English edition has yet been produced. although an unofficial translation is available at

How can we discuss such matters? The media that we use - Amazon, Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, eBay and Paypal - are all Jewish-owned.

On many topics, Wikipedia is reliable, but not on matters sensitive to Jews. Whether this is a matter of editiorial policy, or of Hasbara by Jewish activists, I cannot say.

Today, Friday February 15, 2019, I searched various Wikipedia webpages for 'Solzhenitsyn'. There were no hits on webpages 'Communism', 'Bolsheviks', 'Russian Revolution' and 'Red Terror'. Only the webpage 'Gulag' had hits (15).

'Soviet Union' ('USSR' redirected there) webpage had one mention of Solzhenitsyn, not in the body of the article, or the References or the Bibliography, but in "Further reading", where it lists one book - which does not deal with the Soviet period, but post-Soviet reconstruction.

In short, Solzhenitsyn has been censored. Written out, wiped out.

No wonder, then, that there's still no official English translation of 200YT, after 20 years.

Communism: no hits: This page was last edited on 14 February 2019, at 14:21 (UTC).

Russian Revolution ('Bolshevik Revolution' redirected there) : no hits This page was last edited on 6 February 2019, at 11:57 (UTC).

Bolsheviks: no hits This page was last edited on 13 February 2019, at 01:14 (UTC).

Red Terror: no hits Last edited on 8 January 2019, at 20:30

Soviet Union (& USSR, which redirects there):

One mention, not in the body of the article, or the References or the Bibliography, but in "Further reading", where it lists this book - which does not deal with the Soviet period:

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. Rebuilding Russia: Reflections and Tentative Proposals, trans. and annotated by Alexis Klimoff. First ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1991. N.B.: Also discusses the other national constituents of the USSR. ISBN 0-374-17342-7 This page was last edited on 14 February 2019, at 13:07 (UTC).

Gulag: 15 hits Last edited on 11 February 2019, at 13:51

Communist Party of the Soviet Union: no hits This page was last edited on 11 February 2019, at 23:04 (UTC).

(4) Wikipedia webpage on 200YT is obsessed with accusations of Antisemitism, fails to ask why no English edition

Two Hundred Years Together

Two Hundred Years Together (Russian: Dvesti let vmeste) is a two-volume historical essay by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. It was written as a comprehensive history of Jews in the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and modern Russia between the years 1795 and 1995, especially with regard to government attitudes toward Jews.[1]

Solzhenitsyn published this two-volume work on the history of Russian­Jewish relations in 2001 and 2002. The book stirred controversy, and many historians reported it as unreliable in factual data. Some historians classified it as antisemitic.[2][3][4][5][6] The book was published in French and German in 2002­2003. A partial English translation is found in "The Solzhenitsyn Reader".[7]


In the first volume, Solzhenitsyn discusses the history of Russians and the 100,000 Jews that had migrated to Russia between 1772 and the revolution of 1917. He asserts that the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire were not government-sponsored but spontaneous acts of violence, except for some government culpability in the Pale of Settlement. Solzhenitsyn says that life for Russian Jews was hard but no harder than life for Russian peasants.[1] The second volume covers the post-revolution era up to 1970 when many Jews left Russia for Israel and other western countries.[8] Solzhenitsyn says that the Jews who participated in Russian revolutions were effectively apostates splitting from the spirit of tradition.[1] Solzhenitsyn emphatically denies that Jews were responsible for the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. At the end of chapter nine, Solzhenitsyn denounces "the superstitious faith in the historical potency of conspiracies" that leads some to blame the Russian revolutions on the Jews and to ignore the "Russian failings that determined our sad historical decline."[9]

Solzhenitsyn criticizes the "scandalous" weakness and "unpardonable inaction" that prevented the Russian imperial state from adequately protecting the lives and property of its Jewish subjects. But he claims that the pogroms were in almost every case organized from "below" and not by the Russian state authorities. He criticizes the "vexing," "scandalous", and "distressing" restrictions on the civil liberties of Jewish subjects during the final decades of the Russian old regime. On that score, in chapter ten of the work he expresses his admiration for the efforts of Pyotr Stolypin (Prime Minister of Russia from 1906 until 1911) to eliminate all legal disabilities against Jews in Russia.

In the spirit of his 1974 essay "Repentance and Self-Limitation in the Life of Nations",[10] Solzhenitsyn calls for the Russians and Russian Jews alike to take responsibility for the "renegades" in both communities who supported a totalitarian and terrorist regime after 1917. At the end of chapter 15, he writes that Jews must answer for the "revolutionary cutthroats" in their ranks just as Russians must repent "for the pogroms, for...merciless arsonist peasants, for...crazed revolutionary soldiers." It is not, he adds, a matter of answering "before other peoples, but to oneself, to one's conscience, and before God."[11]

Solzhenitsyn also takes the anti-Communist White Movement to task for condoning violence against Jews and thus undermining "what would have been the chief benefit of a White victory" in the Russian Civil War: "a reasonable evolution of the Russian state."


The reception of Two Hundred Years Together has been quite varied. Historian Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern of Northwestern University published a refutation of Solzhenitsyn's claims and has accused him of anti-Semitism. On the other hand, historians such as Geoffrey Hosking[12] and Robert Service have defended Solzhenitsyn against his opponents. Service has argued that from what he has read about the book, Solzhenitsyn is "absolutely right," Jews were disproportionately represented in the early Soviet bureaucracy. Service also notes that Solzhenitsyn is very far from the anti-Semitism of the extreme Russian Right and addresses this issue in a moderate and responsible manner.[13] In a review of volume 1 of Two Hundred Years Together that appeared in The New Republic[14]

Critics focus on Solzhenitsyn's insistence that Jews were as much perpetrators as victims in the communist repression, and that both Russians and Jews need to acknowledge their share of sin.[15] Questions related to Jewish participation in the three Revolutions have been controversial. Vassili Berezhkov, a retired KGB colonel and historian of the secret services and the NKVD (the precursor of the KGB), said that: "The question of ethnicity did not have any importance either in the revolution or the story of the NKVD. This was a social revolution and those who served in the NKVD and Cheka were serving ideas of social change. If Solzhenitsyn writes that there were many Jews in the NKVD, it will increase the passions of anti-Semitism, which has deep roots in Russian history. I think it is better not to discuss such a question now."[13] Others feel that Jews were not implicated enough to warrant a reference to Russian antisemitism, or that any notion of the collective responsibility should be avoided.[15]

Solzhenitsyn asserted that Jews were overrepresented in the early Bolshevik leadership and the security apparatus, without citing his sources. He wrote that "from 22 ministers in the first Soviet government three were Russian, one Georgian, one Armenian and 17 Jews".[16] This assertion has been deemed inaccurate, with the argument that the number of Commissars in the first Soviet government on 7 November 1917 was 15, not 22, of whom 11 were ethnic Russians (Milyutin, Yelizarov, Skvortsov, Lomov, Rykov, Lenin, Shlyapnikov, Nogin, Antonov-Ovseenko, Krylenko and Avilov), two Ukrainians (Lunacharsky and Dybenko), one Pole (Teodorovich), and only one Jew (Trotsky).[17]

Solzhenitsyn stated: "I had to bury many comrades at the front, but not once did I have to bury a Jew". He also stated that according to his personal experience, Jews had a much easier life in the GULAG camps that he was interned in.[18][19]

Richard Pipes review

The book has been described by historian Richard Pipes of Harvard University as "a conscious effort to show empathy for both sides," and exonerating Jews for responsibility for the revolution: "No, in no way can it be said that Jews 'made' the revolution of 1905 or 1917 as it was not made by another nation taken as a whole". At the same time Pipes notes that Solzhenitsyn is "too eager to exonerate czarist Russia of mistreating its Jewish subjects, and as a consequence is insensitive to the Jews' predicament".[20] In Richard Pipes' opinion, the book absolves Solzhenitsyn from the taint of antisemitism, although he thinks the authorÕs nationalism prevents him from being fully impartial, and that Solzhenitsyn is using outdated and inadequate sources. Pipes asserts that Solzhenitsyn failed to consider the "poisonous atmosphere in which Jews lived for generations in the Russian empire (an atmosphere originating in Russian Orthodox and nationalist circles)". In particular, Pipes notes that Solzhenitsyn failed to discuss The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a Russian anti-Semitic forgery.[20][21]

Petrovsky-Shtern critique

Solzhenitsyn was accused by the Northwestern University historian Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern of using unreliable and manipulated figures, while ignoring evidence unfavorable to his own point of view and, in particular, ignoring numerous publications of reputable authors in Jewish history.[22] Petrovsky says that Solzhenitsyn claims that Jews promoted alcoholism among the peasantry, flooded the retail trade with contraband, and "strangled" the Russian merchant class in Moscow.[23] He says that according to Solzhenitsyn, Jews are non-producing people ("??")[24] and refuse to engage in factory labor.[25] They are averse to agriculture and unwilling to till the land either in Russia, in Argentina, or in Palestine,[26] and the author blames the Jews' own behavior for pogroms.[27] He says that Solzhenitsyn also claims that Jews used Kabbalah to tempt Russians into heresy,[28] seduced Russians with rationalism and fashion,[29] provoked sectarianism and weakened the financial system,[30] committed murders on the orders of qahal authorities,[31] and exerted undue influence on the prerevolutionary government.[32] Petrovsky summarizes his critique by stating that "200 Years Together is destined to take a place of honor in the canon of russophone antisemitica."

Semyon Reznik review

A critical analysis was published by the Russian-American historian Semyon Reznik. According to Reznik, Solzhenitsyn is careful in his vocabulary, generous in compliments toward Jews and maintains a neutral tone throughout, but at the same time he not only condones repressive measures against Jews, but justifies them as intended for protection of the rights of Russians as the titular nation that supposedly "greatly suffered from Jewish exploitation, alcohol mongering, usury and corruption of the traditional way of life".[33]

Other critiques

Historian and demographer Sergey Maksudov referred to THYT as "a piece of pseudoscientific essayism", which promulgates numerous antisemitic stereotypes of Jews as professional parasites, infiltrators into the Russian culture, and portrays repressive policies toward Jews as being "in Jews' own interests". Maksudov also claims that Solzhenitsyn was insensitive toward Jewish sufferings during pogroms in general, and the Kishinev pogrom in particular, and also accuses Solzhenitsyn of denying many well documented atrocities.[34]

John Klier, a historian at University College London, describes the charges of anti-Semitism as "misguided", but at the same time writes that in his account of the pogroms of the early 20th century, Solzhenitsyn is far more concerned with exonerating the good name of the Russian people than he is with the suffering of the Jews, and he accepts the tsarist government's canards blaming the pogroms on provocations by the Jews themselves.[35]

A detailed analysis of THYT and an overview of critical opinion thereon was published by the University of Waterloo professor Zinaida Gimpelevich. According to Gimpelevich, the critical opinion worldwide overwhelmingly tilts against Solzhenitsyn.[36]

Grigory Baklanov, a Russian novelist, in his critical study described Two Hundred Years as "worthless as historical scholarship". Baklanov, himself a World War II veteran, focuses on Solzhenitsyn's insistence on Jews' supposed wartime cowardice and unwillingness to face the enemy, which he says is contradicted both by the statistics of Jewish frontline casualties and by the high number of Jews decorated for bravery in battle.[37]

Literary historian Leonid Katsis accuses Solzhenitsyn of numerous manipulated and selective quotations in the first volume of the book, detrimental to its trustworthiness.[38] Cultural historian and comparatist Elisa Kriza discusses THYT in an article about anti-Semitism in Solzhenitsyn's works and explains how Solzhenitsyn's accusations towards Jewish people as a group and his treatment of Russian Jews as "foreign", despite being in Russia for two hundred years, are evidence of anti-Semitic rhetoric in the book.[39]

Historians Leybelman, Levinskaya, and Abramov claim that Solzhenitsyn uncritically used writings of antisemitic pseudo-historian[40] Andrey Dikiy for his inflated statistical data of Jewish participation in the early Soviet government and its security apparatus.[33][41][42][43]

Mark Deutch, in a two-part review titled "A Shameless Classic" ("??),[44][45] lists numerous drawbacks, stemming, in his opinion, from biased exposition, ignoring well-known sources, self-contradictions, and factual errors. [...]

This page was last edited on 1 February 2019, at 12:20 (UTC).

(5) Solzhenitsyn family dismisses 'Jewish conspiracy', says no English edition of 200YT; online editions are illegal


Aleksandr SolzhenitsynÕs Two Hundred Years Together, a two-volume history of Russian-Jewish relations, initially grew out of The Red Wheel, his monumental opus on the Russian Revolution. In Two Hundred Years Together, Solzhenitsyn emphatically denies (in Chapters 9 and 14) that the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 were the result of a "Jewish conspiracy" (just as he had earlier forcefully criticized the extreme nationalists who were and are obsessed with Freemasons and JewsÑsee, e.g., Russia in Collapse, Chapter 25, "The Maladies of Russian Nationalism").

In The Red Wheel Solzhenitsyn had shown the Revolution in full complexity; and indeedÑto avoid boiling down that complexity or skewing it via the narrow prism of Russian-Jewish relationsÑhe gave The Red Wheel priority of publication in every major language, ahead of Two Hundred Years Together. And so likewise in English, an authorized translation of Two Hundred Years Together will follow The Red Wheel.

Two Hundred Years Together was first published in Russian in the 1990s, and several times since. The definitive Russian edition is published by Vremya (Moscow, 2015), as volumes 26 & 27 of their ongoing 30-volume collected works of Solzhenitsyn.

An authorized French translation is published in two volumes by Fayard.

Deux siècles ensemble, tome 1 : Juifs et Russes avant la révolution

Deux siècles ensemble, tome 2 : Juifs et Russes pendant la période soviétique

An authorized German translation is published in two volumes by Herbig, and can be found here:

Zweihundert Jahre zusammen

With respect to an English editionÑto recapitulate the aboveÑan authorized translation of the full work is firmly in the plans, but awaits the completion of English publication of The Red Wheel. Therefore, no information is yet available regarding a specific publication timeline.

Meanwhile, readers need to be forewarned that any and all English versions available on the Internet (with two important exceptions listed below) are illegal, pirated, and/or entirely unauthorized; often poorly and loosely translated; and redact passages, and indeed whole chapters, that apparently do not support the prejudices of those behind these illegal editions.

EditorsÕ Introduction, AuthorÕs Introduction, and excerpts from Chapters 8,9,15,16, translated by Alexis Klimoff & Stephan Solzhenitsyn, available in The Solzhenitsyn Reader. - Download (pdf)

AuthorÕs Introduction and the complete Chapter 11, translated by Jamey Gambrell, published in Common Knowledge, vol. 9, issue 2 (Spring 2003), pp. 204­27. - Download (pdf)

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, first interview with Viktor Loshak, Moscow News, 20 June 2001 - Download (pdf)

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, second interview with Viktor Loshak, Moscow News, 1 January 2003 - Download (pdf)

Daniel J. Mahoney, "In Search of Mutual Understanding: Solzhenitsyn on RussiaÕs 'Jewish QuestionÕ" - Download (pdf)

Geoffrey Hosking, Times Literary Supplement review of Russian edition, 1 March 2002 - Download (pdf)

Richard Pipes, New Republic review of Russian edition, 25 November 2002 - Download (pdf)?

(6) The word "Moslem" - in the German version but not the Russian or French versions

From: "Saleh Elkmeshi" <> Subject: RE: Solzhenitsyn - Banned All Over Again Date: Sun, 12 Jan 2014 20:59:17 +0100

Dear Peter; I hope this finds YOU in the best of health.. I also hope you recollect me from years back, after this. I want to thank you for your Great work and conrtibution to enlightment... With all due respect..

I downloaded the 200YT book by Solzhenitsyn, and found the guy is out of foucos, or disorinted in the historical context of 13th century.. when Mosco was established.

He mixes between Jewish and Moslems and claims the Moslems bought from Tatars (Moslems) the "pricipalit rights to levy Tribute" ?? Or dose he mean the Keiv Jewish ?? who bought those rights from the Tatars? Thank you and happy lunatic birth of the Prophet MohamedÉ hearing all kind of fireworks around me in Tripoli.

{quote - from 200YT, p.6}
The invasion of the Tatars portended the end of the lively commerce of the Kiev Rus, and many Jews apparently went to Poland. (Also the jewish colonization into Volhynia and Galicia continued, where they had scarcely suffered from the Tatar invasion.) The Encyclopedia explains: "During the invasion of the Tatars (1239) which destroyed Kiev, the Jews also suffered, but in the second half of the 13th century they were invited by the Grand Princes to resettle in Kiev, which found itself under the domination of the Tatars. On account of the special rights, which were also granted the Jews in other possessions of the Tatars, envy was stirred up in the town residents against the Kiev Jews." Similar happened not only in Kiev, but also in the cities of North Russia, which "under the Tatar rule, were accessible for many [Moslem? see note 1] merchants from Khoresm or Khiva, who were long since experienced in trade and the tricks of profit-seeking. These people bought from the Tatars the principality's right to levy Tribute, they demanded excessive interest from poor people and, in case of their failure to pay, declared the debtors to be their slaves, and took away their freedom. The residents of Vladimir, Suzdal, and Rostov finally lost their patience and rose up together at the pealing of the Bells against these usurers; a few were killed and the rest chased off." A punitive expedition of the Khan against the mutineers was threatened, which however was hindered via the mediation of Alexander Nevsky. "In the documents of the 15th century, Kievite [G19] jewish tax-leasers are mentioned, who possessed a significant fortune."

Note 1. The word "Moslem" is in the German but not French translation. I am researching the Russian original.
{endquote - from 200YT}

Best Regards Saleh M. Elkmeshi. ICT & MD Services. Tripoli - Libya.

Reply (Peter M.):

> hearing all kind of fireworks around me in Tripoli.

Are you sure they are not gunshots?

As for the word "Moslem" you refer to: this paragraph is from Chapter 1, p. 6 in the pdf.

You are right - the word "Moslem" should not be there. It's referring to Jews, not Moslems - that is, to Jewish Tax-farmers who paid the Tatars for the right to levy taxes from the people.

In another version of Chapter 1, there is this note (near the bottom of this page). I think that TJH is the translator:

{quote} Note 1. The word "Moslem" is in the German but not French translation. I am researching the Russian original. The word "Moslem" is not in the French version. It does not appear to be in the Russian either, though I am struggling to get every word in the Russian. When I succeed, I will make a final correction. Until then, I have added a footnote.

Comment by TJH - March 31, 2008 @ 8:00 pm


A .doc version (which opens in Microsoft Word) is at Solzhenitsyn-200YT.doc

The pdf is at Solzhenitsyn-200YT.pdf .

Write to me at contact.html.